[Owasp-natal] Secutiry disclosure policy best practices

Noilson Caio caiogore em gmail.com
Sexta Julho 6 19:29:09 UTC 2012


Retirado de:
https://titanous.com/posts/security-disclosure-policy-best-practices6/07/2012



Every company with public-facing web applications needs a clear security
disclosure policy. This policy serves three main purposes. First it tells
people who discover a vulnerability how to proceed and what your response
will be so they can report problems easily. Secondly it tells your
employees exactly how to process and respond to these reports. Most
importantly, a clear public security policy lets your users know in advance
how you will respond to recently discovered vulnerabilities.

As I discovered last week when notifying Heroku of a vulnerability in their
build system<https://titanous.com/posts/vulnerabilities-in-heroku-build-system>,
even the most progressive, respected companies don’t always get it 100%
right.

No matter how well designed your application, users will find bugs. When
(not if) that happens, it is vital that the person who discovers the
vulnerability knows how to report it.

Bug reporting is a funnel, just like every other part of your web
application. If users get confused or decide you are not worth their time,
they will leave the site without converting. In this case your “users” may
be curious hackers, security researchers, or even your own customers. It’s
your job to make reporting as easy, painless, and rewarding as possible. If
you fail, you risk not finding out about the vulnerability, which could
endanger your users’ data and the company’s future. Remember, the person
reporting a security flaw is being friendly and doing you a big favor.
Treat them accordingly.

Here’s how:
Security Page

At some point, someone will need to report a security vulnerability. You
don’t want to have that conversation you in public or in the clear. It is
also not a problem you want to outsource to Twitter, Facebook, or a forum.
The first thing on your security page should be a link to *
security at yourawesomeapp.com*. The second is a PGP public key, which can be
used to send you encrypted messages. This page should *always* be served
over HTTPS. Only by encrypting each step in the communication process can
the sender be sure the person they are emailing is who they claim to be
without being intercepted. If the PGP key is not posted already, a
responsible hacker might email a request for one to be posted which wastes
valuable time. The person discovering the vulnerability might become
unavailable by the time the key is posted, causing further delays.
Policies

The policies listed on this page should be clear, concise, and friendly.
The person who discovers a vulnerability is already in a difficult position
and it is important they understand your policies.
Indemnification

A person who accidentally discovers a vulnerability may need to experiment
further to see how far the problem goes, and even if it is in fact a
vulnerability. Often it is not possible to determine the nature of a
vulnerability without trying to do something that should not normally be
possible or allowed. Unfortunately parts of this process often necessarily
run afoul of the law in some jurisdictions, meaning that if the hacker
wants to report a problem to a company, s/he needs to admit to
participating in a possibly illegal activity. Some companies make this
difficult situation worse by threatening legal action outright or if the
disclosing hackers refuse to sign a retroactive NDA. Minor penetration is a
routine part of security testing and user exploration. Regardless of the
legal threats available to your company, using them against users, hackers,
or researchers who acted without malicious intent is never advisable.

For these reasons it is vital that you indemnify and hold blameless anyone
who penetrates your site, and in the process of exploring or experimenting,
extracts a small amount of sensitive data and promptly notifies you then
destroys any data collected. Without a clear and binding promise of
immunity from future prosecution, those who discover vulnerabilities may
not notify you at all. Publishing a clear policy that protects the party
disclosing an exploit is the first, and most important step in building
trust.
Bounties

Details about a vulnerability are worth a great deal of money. This kind of
information is valuable not only to your competitors, but also on growing
black and grey markets. Many other parties would pay for the details of a
vulnerability in order to exploit it themselves. This means that anyone
discovering a vulnerability on your site could sell it easily. Knowledge of
a vulnerability will always be worth more to your company than any of these
others. However, a hacker asking for money either before or after making a
disclosure can make everyone uncomfortable. Avoid this situation entirely
by advertising generous bounties ahead of time. Here’s what some companies
are currently offering:
 Facebook <https://www.facebook.com/whitehat/bounty/> Starting at $500
Mozilla <https://www.mozilla.org/security/bug-bounty.html> $3,000 flat fee
Google <http://www.google.com/about/company/rewardprogram.html> $500-$20,000
depending on severity

The free market determines how much a vulnerability in your system is
worth. For products with large user bases, the prices can get very
high<http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2012/03/23/shopping-for-zero-days-an-price-list-for-hackers-secret-software-exploits/>
.

The best companies also make their pre-release code or a staging server
with dummy data available for testing with even higher rewards. In this
case exploits can be found and remedied before users’ data is ever
compromised.
Disclosure

Without the threat of full disclosure, responsible disclosure would not
work, and vendors would go back to ignoring security vulnerabilities. Bruce
Schenier<https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2012/06/on_securing_pot.html>

Do not ever try to get hackers or researchers to take a bounty in exchange
for not publishing their discovery (and it is *their* discovery).
Unfortunately some companies offer bounties only in exchange for silence.
Don’t attach strings to bounties. Many hackers prize recognition higher
than remuneration, and there’s no need to deprive them of both. Similarly,
security researchers make their living off of their reputation for
discovering holes. A great policy is to offer a reasonable
no-strings-attached bounty and then double for responsible disclosure.

*Responsible Disclosure* is when the researcher who discovered a
vulnerability notifies the creator of the product and allows them a
reasonable amount of time to fix it. After that time, the researcher
publishes the details publicly regardless of whether the users have been
officially notified.

No matter what, remember that someone disclosing a vulnerability to you
directly is usually trying to do the right thing.
Timing

Respond very quickly. When the crisis ends, the discussion will be about
how your company handled the situation. It is crucial that the relevant
team began work immediately instead of waiting until the next day, or for a
lawyer’s permission to talk to the person who reported the problem. Any
delay will look like either incompetence or a conspiracy to cover up the
vulnerability. You can’t afford for customers or the press to think either.
Your customers will be busy checking their own data and then decide if they
should change providers. The timing of your response should not be its own
reason to leave.

Emails to *security at yourawesomeapp.com* are your company’s highest
priority, period. Your lawyer, investors, and mother can all wait. Messages
to that address should be forwarded to the highest ranking member of your
security/ops/engineering team on call *and* the CEO. If you don’t have a
24-hour on-call rotation, create a script with Twilio, Tropo, or Adhearsion
that wakes up the CEO or founders. Whoever needs to respond to the problem
gets woken up and/or called back from vacation. You asked your customers
trust you with their data (and often their own customers’ as well). Many of
those affected would gladly wake up themselves to fix it if they were able.
You have an obligation to respond as quickly as you are physically able.
Employees

Hearing about a vulnerability is a high stress time for your team. Try not
to make it worse. They already feel like they screwed up no matter what
caused the vulnerability. Don’t have a blame culture–make it clear you’re
all on the same team and share a single mission: doing the best you can for
your customers.

Your security team needs to be in direct contact immediately with the
person who discovered the vulnerability. Any attempts at legal maneuvering
will slow down their response and distract the only people who can fix the
problem(s). Make it clear that your team’s responsibility is to patch the
application, not manage your company’s strategic communications. If
developers are free to treat each other as peers without a lawyer leaning
over their shoulders, the patch will come sooner.
Customers

Customers need to know about a problem after it has been patched. Public
disclosure means you get caught with your pants down. Discovery without
disclosure means someone has a backdoor to your users’ lives and
businesses. Which do you think they would prefer? Your obligation to your
customers comes first, regardless of any embarrassment it might cause. If
world governments are not able to keep their embarrassing secrets, it is
unlikely you will be able to either (for long). Honest and direct
communication builds user loyalty, hiding the failures that affect your
users causes far bigger problems.
Outcomes

   1. All vulnerabilities caught in pre-release stage.
   2. Vulnerabilities in production code caught and responsibly disclosed.
   3. Vulnerabilities caught and disclosed to users and company
   simultaneously.
   4. Vulnerabilities discovered by malicious party and exploited without
   company or user knowledge.

Always remember when you are dealing with disclosure of a security issue
that things could be much worse–you could not know about it.

I’ll cover best practices for hackers disclosing the vulnerability next
week in part Ⅱ, and how to break the news to users in part Ⅲ.


-- 
Noilson Caio Teixeira de Araújo
Linux Professional Institute Certification  2 - LPI000182893
Novell Certified Linux Administrator (CLA) - 10111916
Novell Data Center Technical Specialist

http://ncaio.ithub.com.br
http://br.linkedin.com/in/ncaio
http://www.commandlinefu.com/commands/by/ncaio
http://www.dicas-l.com.br/autores/noilsoncaioteixeiradearaujo.php
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